Badou Senegalese Cuisine - Power your health with delicious Senegalese food.
RSS

Delivered by FeedBurner


Recent Posts

Obama Four Years Ago: the Race in the Race
Why Foreign Aid Fails to Promote Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa?
test

Archives

September 2013
May 2013
February 2013

powered by

My Political Vision

Why Foreign Aid Fails to Promote Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa?

Over the past 50 years, Sub Saharan Africa has received over "500 billion Dollars in foreign aid"[1] from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries (OECD), Arab countries, China, the Breton Wood's institutions (the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank). Yet, the region continues to struggle in a vast ocean of extreme poverty with its concatenation of great despair (high rate of unemployment, high rate of illiteracy, high infant mortality, and poor nutrition, poor healthcare system, poor infrastructure, the list is far from being exhaustive. This heartbreaking paradox brings us to ponder: why foreign aid fails to promote economic growth and development in Sub-Saharan Africa; why it has not been able to move Sub-Saharan Africa from subsistence and survival to a higher living standard. I will attempt to bring light to this question by mainly focusing on both, the exogenous and endogenous causes which have greatly contributed to the tragic failure of foreign aid for development in Sub-Saharan Africa. What could be done to improve foreign aid and make it more effective in the fight against poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa?  A brief historical overview of foreign assistance will deepen our understanding of the underlying rationale behind foreign aid in Sub-Saharan Africa.  
            It was in 1947 when European countries, the great majority of which were wracked by World War II that the United States, under Secretary of State George Marshall, designed a program that aimed to provide economic assistance to European countries. The plan provided more than 13 billion dollars for the purpose of reviving European economies and stabilizing their political structures. George Marshall called on the Soviet Union to participate in the efforts to rebuild the European economies which were greatly devastated by the war. He argued that “our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.”
  But that call was systematically rejected by the Soviet Union which was suspicious that the American strategy was a conspiracy to stop the expansion of Soviet control of the Eastern European region.  The Marshal Plan also known as the European Recovery Program (ERP) recorded an historical success by reviving the devastated European economies and raising the Western European GNP by 25%. Despite this great success, one might ask the following question: what drove policy makers to design foreign policies? This question takes us to the heart of the realist view of national security. Rationalists would argue that states, as the primary unit of analysis, act on the basis of self-interest, and, due to an anarchical state in the realm of international politics, nations seek to maximize their power in order to attain their national security and promote their values and economic welfare. In light of this brief overview, it is apparent that the Marshall plan was clearly consistent with the realist approach. The plan was designed to overcome the Soviet Union's threat of the spread of Communism in Eastern Europe and beyond; it was thus, a policy consisting of containing Communism by preventing its progression in Western Europe and in the rest of the world. It was also engineered to boost the American economy because the recipient countries were bound to purchase their goods and services in the United States. In either case, aid was designed to promote the donor’s national interests.   The American economic aid program was extended to Africa and many underdeveloped countries by President Truman and later by President Kennedy. President Truman announced in his inaugural speech that
"
We must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. More than half the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate. They are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more prosperous areas."
            If the large commitment of resources to rebuild the devastated European economies has been successful, such has not been, however, the case for Sub-Saharan Africa.  Thompson Ayodole, executive director of the Initiative for Public Policy Analysis argued that "Helping Africa is a noble cause, but the campaign has become a theater of the absurd, the blind leading the clueless. The record of Western aid to Africa is one of abysmal failure. More than 500 billion dollars in foreign aid – the equivalent of four Marshall Aid plans – was pumped into Africa between 1960 and 1997. Instead of increasing development, aid has created dependence."
This argument implicitly points the finger at both, the blind and the clueless, representing respectively the donors and the recipients of aid, as having shared responsibility in the failure of foreign aid to promote development and growth in Africa.
            But let me first focus on the donors' share of responsibility. European experts on the subject of Africa and development have not hesitated to point the finger at foreign assistance as being one of the main causes of African under-development. African scholars, by the same token, have questioned Western generosity toward African development. Both Europeans and Africans came to the conclusion that foreign aid has created a vicious cycle of dependence. According to Deborah Brautigam, “Aid dependence can be defined as a situation in which a country cannot perform many of the core functions of government, such as operations and maintenance, or the delivery of basic public services, without foreign aid funding and expertise.”
The inflow of a large amount of aid in the long run forces African states to rely heavily on foreign assistance to support their budgets. This situation encourages reckless fiscal behavior on behalf of African heads of states and loose fiscal policies that engender what economists have coined as "soft budget constraints" (SBC). Soft budget constraint syndrome occurs whenever an organization spends more than its revenues and relies on external subsidies to offset its expenditures and balance its budget. These bailouts allow failed states to continue the same practices that cause them to fail in the first place. And the constant repetition of the same mistakes causes us to ponder to what extent the West understands the dynamic complexities of the African reality.

            When Easterly talks about “The arrogance of the West in the face of a very imperfect knowledge”[6], Robert Kaplan’s narrative comes to mind. Kaplan's observation while travelling in Africa shows that Western views about Africa, far from being flawless, are full of bias. His lack of understanding of the African cosmos, deeply rooted in the African reality brings him to make over-exaggerated and occasionally over-simplified remarks about West Africa. He states that “Crime is what makes West Africa a natural point of departure for my report on what the political character of our planet is likely to be in the twenty-first century….The cities of West Africa at night are some of the unsafest places in the world.”[7] This particular observation is shockingly erroneous when considering the 2006 World Crime Statistics in which no single African nation is listed in the top 37 worst countries. Further, in his description Kaplan says “In the village of Africa it is perfectly natural to feed at any table and lodge in any hut. But in the cities this communal existence no longer holds. You must pay for lodging and be invited for food.”[8] Western scholars like Kaplan, combined with policy makers, are sometimes misled by their European cultural backgrounds and preconceived generalizations about Africa. Their lens of focus is sometimes too narrowed to see the underlying roots of African issues and how to administer the appropriate remedies to alleviate those issues. Dr. William Easterly makes a very sound remark showing how the Western therapy of aid has failed to uplift Africa and how the West keeps administering the same medicine over decades without learning from their past failings. He argues that “the response of the West to Africa’s tragedy has been constant throughout the years, from economist Walt Rostow and John F. Kennedy in 1960 to economist Jeffrey Sachs and Tony Blair in 2005:  give more aid. Walt Rostow, motivated by acceleration of the Cold War, called for doubling foreign aid in 1960; World Bank President, McNamara called for doubling of aid in 1973: the World Bank again called for doubling of aid with the end of the Cold War in 1990. World Bank President Wolfensohn called for doubling aid with the beginning of the terrorist wars in 2001. As just noted, G-8 Summit in July 2005 agreed to double aid to Africa. Aid to Africa did rise steadily throughout this period (tripling as a percent of African GDP from the 1970s to 1990s), but African growth remained stuck at zero percent per capita.”[9] As we can see, the result does not match all the efforts deployed by the West to overcome poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Easterly concludes by stating that “this review of the literature does not give a lot of grounds for hope that the West can save Africa. Either the various views of the roots of poverty in Africa were too simplistic, or the attempts to change these root causes underestimated the difficulty of doing so from the outside, or both.”[10]  
            It has been noted that aid is more strategically designed to meet the donors' economic and political goals because of the donor's conditionality. There is a correlation linking foreign assistance and recipient countries 'export. The argument behind this correlation shows that aid is used to give an edge to donor countries that ship their goods to aid recipient countries. This form of aid is known as "tied aid." Tied aid consists of attaching strings to the financial assistance package for the benefit of the aid provider who requires the aid beneficiary to buy noncompetitive goods from the donor country. This practice helps boost the donors' exports and makes aid more costly for the recipients. The value of the aid is substantially reduced;
subsequently, the donors' conditionality becomes detrimental to the recipient countries' ability to formulate adequately their own trade policy.  
            Donors' economic policies do not encourage fair exchange between poor African countries and their European partners; they enact protective measures for certain goods in order to protect their domestic industries. Paradoxically, the policies they recommend to less developed countries are in so many ways inconsistent with development. For example, the ill-framed structural adjustment policies of the IFM and the World Bank set as remedies to stabilize the Sub-Saharan African economy have had devastating socio-economic and environmental effects in Sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the economic turmoil they have been facing, accompanied by a severe drought affecting agricultural activities as the main economic activity, African developing countries have experienced enormous difficulties for the repayment of their debts. The IMF and the World Bank, as their principal lenders have implemented a set of policies directing these countries to liberalize their economies, balance their budgets by undergoing cuts in unproductive sectors and maximize their exports to reduce their deficits. These policies, once implemented, according to the Breton Woods institutions, would help highly indebted countries be able to repay their debts and stabilize their economies. This leads Stewart Frances to state that "The stabilization and adjustment policies they designed were intended to reduce the twin imbalances of external and domestic accounts, and correct policy biases against trade and market forces, in order to establish the basis for sustainable growth. The adjustment programs were adopted with more or less effective implementation in many countries almost continuously throughout the 1980s, dominating policy making and displacing most long run development policies. Because of the pervasiveness, dominance and prolonged nature of the stabilization and adjustment policies, they had wide-ranging medium term consequences not only for the macro economy but also for incomes of the poor and for the social sectors."
The structural adjustment program (SAP) was intended to relieve debt and induce growth as to stabilize the Sub Saharan economies. Instead it has greatly contributed to the suffering of “thirty six” nations in Sub-Saharan Africa and to unprecedented environmental degradation. Sustainable development in the social, economic and environmental areas was the poor godfather of structural adjustment. Budget cuts and privatization negatively affected all sectors.  
            Todd Moss talks about the costs of aid highly "related to the structure, practices and procedure of the current international system… such aid practices are believed to have substantial costs for public administration
According to Moss, many of the problems encountered with aid may be attributed to the structures of aid, making financial assistance very costly to the recipient countries. The resources and energy of government officials are diverted from real development projects towards the profit of donors' agendas and activities.  
The structure of aid itself lacks efficiency.  Instead of focusing on narrow solvable problems such as clean water supply, donors orient their efforts toward big projects which often do not meet the urgent needs of the African people. Furthermore, there are coordination issues at many levels such as program implementations, policy making, and fund disbursement.
            Last, but not least, aid undermines the capacity of Sub-Saharan African governments to engage in serious state-building enterprises. Revenue collection is a key indicator of government capacity. The ability of the government to raise taxes is a very determinant factor in democratic institutions. Todd Moss argues that foreign aid cripples state capacity to collect revenues because it makes recipient countries highly dependent on foreign assistance as a means of subsistence. Tax collection is weak because foreign aid reduces tax burden.  

Another detrimental effect of foreign aid can be seen in the relation between aid and savings. Proponents of foreign assistance have argued that financial assistance to poor countries has a positive effect in saving and investment because it raises the level of income. A substantial influx of aid, to the contrary of all evidence, substantially decreases savings. By making additional resources available, foreign aid encourages greater spending. Rather than supplementing domestic saving, it simply replaces it. Dambisa Moyo states for this reason that “As foreign aid comes in, domestic savings decline; that is, investment falls. This is not to give the impression that a whole population is awash with aid money, as it only reaches relatively few, very select hands. With all the tempting aid monies can offer, which are notorious fungible, the few spend it on consumer goods, instead of saving the cash. As savings decline, local banks have less money to lend for domestic investment. Economic studies confirm this hypothesis, finding that increases in foreign aid are correlated with declining domestic savings rates.”
            My analysis of the failure of aid to promote sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa would be partial and not fully objective if we count donor countries as the only contributing factor toward that failure. Recipient countries, overwhelmingly, carry a fair share of the burden.
            Peace and development go hand in hand. Stability is a sine qua non condition for development and long-lasting prosperity. Unfortunately the continent of Africa, from Cairo to the Cape, has witnessed all types of conflicts. The colonial legacy, the Cold War and politics of repressive regimes in Africa have shaped and greatly contributed to the major conflicts in the region. The absence of peace in Sub-Saharan Africa has long undermined foreign assistance efforts to alleviate poverty and establish sustainable development. When speaking about “Development and Conflicts”, Paul Collier states “The relationship between civil war and failures in development is strong and goes in both directions: civil war powerfully retards development; and equally, failures in development substantially increase proneness to civil war. My message is in part a warning: unless the incidence of civil war is sharply reduced by international efforts a substantial group of the poorest countries are likely to be stuck in a ‘conflict trap’ – a cycle of war and economic decline.”
Intra-state wars and inter-state wars could have been avoided in many instances if African states rulers were truly committed to the African renaissance ideal. 

Leadership is a critical key component of any successful organization let alone of any successful and well respected nation. It is ironically unfortunate that "poor" leadership seems to be the most relevant trait to determine who should be a head of state or a government official in Sub-Saharan Africa. Robert I. Rotberg, Director of the Program on Intrastate Conflict at Harvard University, describes the issue in the following terms: "Africa has long been saddled with poor, even malevolent, leadership: predatory kleptocrats, military-installed autocrats, economic illiterates, and puffed postures. By far the most egregious examples come from Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Zimbabwe – countries that have been run into the ground despite their abundant natural resources. But these cases are by no means unrepresentative: by some measure, 90 percent of Sub-Saharan African nations have experienced despotic rule in the last three decades."[15] These leaders' visions do not extend beyond filling their personal Swiss Bank accounts by embezzling the inflow of financial aid received to uplift the vast majority of their constituencies. The funds are used for political patronage; leaders extend their largesse to political supporters and opinion leaders so they can perpetuate their regimes.
            The world's political history has shown that any government which does not derive its power from its citizens is not bound to be accountable to them. Consequently these leaders rule their country through dictatorship regimes. The high flows of assistance they receive from donors do not provide incentives for African governments to adopt sound institutional reforms. Thus leaders are not liable for their bad economic performance as long as there is a substantial flow of money they can use for trivial consumption rather than for sustainable economic growth investment. As Todd Moss states, "Aid is thought to work best in environments with high-quality public institutions (presumably as part of a capable developmental state) and measures of institutions are an increasingly explicit factor for aid disbursement and allocation. Thus, institutional development is an independent variable thought to affect the efficiency of aid."[16] The chronic preexisting weak institutional structures in Sub-Saharan Africa cripple the efficiency of foreign aid to promote the economic welfare of the states. The case of Senegal (West Africa) is eloquent enough to illustrate the inefficient use of aid. Even though the separation of powers is engraved in the Senegalese constitution, that separation is merely theoretical. In reality, both the legislative power and the judicial power are subordinated to the executive power. All decisions made by the president, whether anti-constitutional or anti-social, are de facto approved by both the judicial and legislative branches of government. This state of affairs has encouraged chronic ill-consumption, and constantly misused and mismanaged foreign assistance. The Senegalese government has created irrelevant institutions merely to satisfy political clientele by offering them official seats in these institutions. Alberto Alesina confirmed this by saying that “The benefits of foreign aid have recently been under severe scrutiny. Several observers argue that a large portion of foreign aid flowing from developed to developing countries is wasted and only increases unproductive public consumption. Poor institutional development, corruption, inefficiencies and bureaucratic failure in the developing countries are often cited as reasons for these results”[17]  
Recently, the Senegal's President, Abdoulaye Wade spent millions of dollars on a "328-foot high bronze statue dubbed the Monument of African Renaissance in Dakar,"
while the vast majority of the Senegalese cannot sustain two meals a day, while the whole city lacks proper infrastructure and while a 43.6% unemployment rate is driving the Senegalese youth to risk their lives by embarking on the vast Atlantic Ocean to the sunny shores of Barcelona in Spain. Many of them lose their lives in the swells of the Atlantic Ocean before they reach the promised land of Barcelona.  Senegal is only a prototype; the same issues prevail all over Sub-Saharan Africa. In Ivory Coast for example, the late President Houphet Boigny built in his hometown, Yamoussoukoro a Catholic basilica worth over 200 million dollars and claimed that he used his own money. In Zaire, President Mobuto requested his daughter’s wedding cake to be flown from Paris to his country. President Mugabe is notorious for his ruthless way of ruling the country by his reckless mismanagement of funds allocated to fight hunger, AIDS and poverty in Zimbabwe. Dambisa Moyo gives accounts of President Mugabe’s misuse of donor funds by stating that “Some African leaders have been notoriously susceptible to shopping trips (Grace Mugabe, wife of Zimbabwe’s president, is known for a penchant for shopping at London’s exclusive Harrods department store) and some may be tempted again.”
We can go on and on with these pitiful cases if it was necessary to prove that most African heads of state tremendously lack the skills and ethics that make for true Leadership.
            Despite the five decades of foreign assistance in Sub-Saharan Africa with little return in economic performance, should we simply ask donor countries to put a halt in aid and seek other alternatives or should the West reframe the whole aid structure in order to attain more positive goals? Dambisa Moyo's proposal consists of cutting off all aid within a period of five years.  She put an emphasis on trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), bond markets (raising money in the capital market), and encouraging micro finance with small loans to African entrepreneurs. She advocates the administration of taxes because it will make citizens more concerned about the whereabouts of their money and therefore will hold government accountable. Transparency is another key element she introduced as being a safeguard to fund disbursements and expenditures. She also strongly urges African states to diversify their trading partners and mentions that China would be the ideal partner because of its trade cooperation policies. Even though China is out for people's interests, Africa can look out for its own interests while benefitting from the infrastructure (roads, railroads, bridges, stadiums, and hospitals) which the Chinese are building on the continent. Dambisa Mayo makes her point by stating that “In an effort to help fast-track Africa’s development, China has in recent years pledged to train 15,000 African professionals, build thirty hospitals and 100 rural schools, and increase the number of Chinese government scholarships to African students from the current 2,000 per year to 4,000 per year by 2009. In 2000, China wrote off US $1.2 billion in African debt. In 2003 it forgave another US $750 million. In 2006 alone, China signed trade deal worth almost US$60 billion.”
            Dambisa Mayo’s prescriptions could be effective to a certain extent if they are accompanied with local restricted policy measures to protect the Sub-Saharan economic fabric.
The open market system she gives as a reference is subject to caution. The Infant industries argument is that week economic sectors, especially in developing countries should be protected through tariff barriers, quotas, non-tariff barriers, and subsidies, so they can mature, like their counterparts in developed countries, before they can compete globally. With the use of these protective measures, foreign imported goods are no longer a threat to domestic goods because of their uncompetitive prices.
            An open market economy has in some countries induced economic growth while in many other countries it has deepened poverty and widened inequalities within and among nations. Some protective policy measures in key economic sectors should be implemented by less developed countries in order to minimize the negative impacts of a free market economy.           Easterly’s view is not as radical as Dambisa Mayo's in asking for a complete cut-off of foreign aid but he still bank on accountability for results on behalf of aid agencies. He demands agencies be realist by making more modest goals for aid. He divides the donors into two groups, the planners who have an outside perspective (IMF, WB, UN, etc) and the researchers who are more associated with the local people. The poor, so to speak, should be empowered and associated in the aid process from delivery to project implementation. Micro loan and micro credit should be encouraged rather than big planner’s projects because the neediest ones have little chance to see the actual money. According to Easterly, aid should not be tailored to be a general solution for all cases. It should take into consideration the specificity of each country because each culture is different. Based on his case studies, he has showed that aid can work in sectors such as primary education and healthcare. His final conclusion is: “In short, the West cannot save Africa but rich country aid can still do good. The escalation of Western interventions in Africa shows arrogance in the face of very imperfect knowledge. Once economists discard arrogance, there is hope to hold donors accountable for such focused outcomes as well-maintained roads, water supply, medicines, nutritional supplements, and textbooks, to improve the well-being of the poorest people in the world. It is time to solve the second tragedy of foreign aid! It’s up to people who care about the poor to hold aid agencies accountable for results. Foreign aid should go towards figuring out what works to help poor people with their most desperate needs, independent evaluation and transparency. So that the next $568 billion of foreign aid to Africa does get 12-cent medicine to keep sick children from dying from malaria, does get $4 bed nets to Africans to prevent malaria, does get the $3 per new mother that would prevent millions of child deaths, so that the next $568 billion of foreign aid to Africa does reach the poor.”
Paul Collier argues that ”To maximize the reduction in poverty, aid should be allocated to countries that have large amounts of poverty and good policy. The presence of large-scale poverty is obviously necessary if aid is to have a large effect on poverty reduction. The good policy ensures that aid has a positive impact. In the remainder of this paper we formalize this idea, examine the extent to which donors are already behaving optimally, and estimate the gains in poverty reduction that could be achieved through a more efficient allocation of existing aid volumes.”
Paul Collier’s argument is about aid reallocation based on two conditions: the level of poverty and the level of quality of policies.  Policy matters; it is an independent variable which greatly affects the outcome of aid. When sound policies in a good institutional environment are enacted, aid becomes more effective. What often happens is, in the absence of trusted institutions, the funds are not correctly channeled to the real beneficiaries meaning, the people at the lower end of the social spectrum, people who no doubt need it the most. It seems like that Paul Collier's call was seized as an opportunity for the Bush administration to combat terrorism while fighting against poverty. Certain criteria needed to be met before a country may be eligible. Eligibility requires a high level of scrutiny which countries must go through before they benefit from the funds. Under the MCA (Millennium Challenge Account) certain aid strategies such as cash on delivery (COD) were implemented to ensure the effectiveness of the United States assistance funds. There were measurable assessments for progress put in place to ensure the impartial allocation of the funds. Both donors and recipients seek to collaborate through information-sharing so that they can evaluate what works and what doesn’t.
Donors and recipient countries cannot persevere in the same failing practices of aid allocation and expect a positive return. Both donors and recipients of aid have to commit themselves through a sincere collaboration to address the structural issues curbing the positive impact of financial assistance. All players have to understand that aid is not a cure to underdevelopment; it is merely a stepping stone into the long road of development. And for Sub-Saharan Africa to engage in a serious economic grow, it has to break its aid- dependency development-centered perspective and redirect its focus toward mobilizing its own resources for a long term sustainable grow and poverty alleviation.     

Badara Diakhate
Political activist
773 931 7754

badoudiakhate@yahoo.fr
post here.

116 Comments to Why Foreign Aid Fails to Promote Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa?:

Comments RSS
wordcounter on Sunday, June 16, 2013 6:54 AM
She advocates the administration of taxes because it will make citizens more concerned about the whereabouts of their money and therefore will hold government accountable.
Reply to comment
 
Evening Dresses uk 2013 on Friday, August 23, 2013 2:10 PM
you're in reality a good webmaster. The site loading speed is incredible. It sort of feels that you're doing any unique trick. In addition, The contents are masterpiece. you have performed a excellent process in this subject!


Bad Credit Loans on Tuesday, October 15, 2013 5:52 AM
I want to thank the author of this blog page. Continue to contribute good ideas and strategies. Many people will surely enhance their knowledge by reading blogs like this .


Loans for Bad Credit on Tuesday, October 15, 2013 7:32 AM
Thank you for this wonderful post! Seriously, I enjoyed reading it, you might be a great author.


Swarovski jewelry outlet on Monday, November 04, 2013 2:34 AM
swarovski jewellery uk , boreal bracelet swarovski , swarsoki.co.uk , swarovski crystallized uk , swarovskisaleuk , swarovski uk ,


Property Ownership and Investment on Sunday, March 30, 2014 7:52 AM
Getting the legal registered entity correct the first time can save you time, money and pain. You must have the best professional advice and expertise on your side.


Know More About SBA Finance on Tuesday, May 06, 2014 2:58 PM
Little Company Management (SBA) financial loans are the financial situation that are provided to the people who plan to set up their small business.


Alyce S. Martin on Tuesday, June 17, 2014 12:52 AM
Property management organizations are involved numerous parts. A few organizations are little in size while some of them are greater.


windows ultimate 32 bit product key on Wednesday, July 13, 2016 3:19 AM
windows 7 professional sp1 license key , windows 10 activation keys free , windows 7 starter to home premium upgrade key
microsoft visio professional 2016 order
cheap windows 10 product key sale


Anne buy windows 8.1 professional key on Tuesday, July 19, 2016 4:15 AM
buy windows 8.1 key , win 8.1 home premium product key , windows 8.1 key online store reviews , how to upgrade windows 8.1 ultimate genuine version for free , buy windows 8.1 ultimate 64 bit product key ,


Microsoft Project Professional 2016 Key Sale on Friday, July 22, 2016 2:11 AM
Buy Microsoft Project Professional 2016 key will be the best choice to use it at the cheapest, soonest and easiest manner.Contact us OnlineKeySale@gmail.com if you have any question.http://www.office2016productkey.com


sad on Wednesday, August 10, 2016 9:10 PM
windows key for windows 10 ultimate for windows for ultimate key , windows 10 enterprise genuine key download , microsoft outlook 2010 product keys , windows 10 professional , buy windows 10 key , oB{LZdlS


Adobe CS6 Master Collection on Tuesday, December 27, 2016 5:23 AM
norton 360 keystore , Microsoft Office visio pro 2013 & Download , windows 8 buy for windows 7 geniune customer , free download activated genuine ms office 2010 professional plus , windows 7 professional license key , free download product key window 7 ultimate 32-bit , visio premium 2010 key , keygen for windows 7 pro , svbJdu
office pro 2016 buy
windows 10 product keys and iso download
Genuine windwos 7 pro keys and download
windows server 2016 essentials key sale online
buy cheap windows 10 professional product key


buy Microsoft Office Professional Plus 2013 key on Thursday, January 05, 2017 1:20 AM
windows 7 home premium sp1 key , windows 7 professional upgrade from microsoft emule , windows 7 pro sp1 keys and download , office pro plus 2013 keys online , download windows thin pc activation , anytime upgrade key starter to ultimate , windows 7 starter ganuan key anytime , windows xp pro software for sale , lYueKp
windows 7 ult key sale online
buy office pro plus 2016 keys
cheap windows 10 pro keys for sale
windows server 2016 standard key and download
get office 2016 product keys online


Cheap Windows 10 Key on Wednesday, June 21, 2017 3:20 AM
windows 7 cey , windows 10 activation time out , windows multipoint 2011 serial or key , windows 10 activation tool , windows 7 ult product key sale and download, windows 7 ultimate klucz , win 7 keys , tAyUvK


replica watches on Friday, July 26, 2013 1:56 AM
I have a presentation next week,and I am on the look for such information.
Reply to comment
 
Swarovski crystal online on Monday, November 04, 2013 2:44 AM
swarovski sale uk , swarovski outlet , discounted swarovski jewelry , swarovski jewellery outlet , swaroski sale uk , swaroski co uk ,


Real personal loans on Sunday, October 20, 2013 12:03 AM
Hello blog owner. A special and kiss for you for the excellent work and help you did for me. I mean to say, I was score some wonderful and suitable stuffs for performing my presentation work and fortunately discovered it on leading page of Google. It’s so helpful for my project and how can quit me to say thanks to the person who is helping me in an excellent manner. Maintain the great work, hope I could do some thing for you in change.
Reply to comment


swarovski on Friday, October 25, 2013 5:58 PM
Happy to see your blog as it is just what I’ve looking for. I am looking forward to another great article from you. for sharing and next will be better.
Reply to comment


reinsurance companies on Friday, November 01, 2013 5:26 AM
Your blog provides excellent tips especially to those who are new to blogosphere! Your write ups provide brief and accurate information… Thanks for sharing this one, a must read write-up.
Reply to comment


Loans For Bad Credit on Wednesday, November 20, 2013 6:10 AM
This is my topic for my next semester project and I don’t know how I can say thanks for this kind of assist you to did to making my project complete. My name is tom and I'm goggling on this topic for some documentation and found you website on leading page of Google. You've get nice and straightforward interface along with excellent stuff on your blog. I also manage a personal blog and now you're in my favorite blog list. Thanks for the wonderful aid and have a nice day.
Reply to comment


Bad credit personal loans on Friday, November 22, 2013 3:41 AM
Properly, to be honest, I'm extremely slow to do comment on blog and merely I do so but buddy, your wonderful work on your specific post, forced me to do a comment for you. I ought to congratulate you for a great website. Now I'm your huge fan due to only this post. How nicely you present the issues to the work with the aid your internet site? 1 of my pals referred your blog to check it out and he was proper about you.
Reply to comment


Jenelia on Monday, December 02, 2013 10:56 AM
Really Great information-able site. Visit our " rivercliff " for get a lot of use information about the boots. You will get here low prices boots.
Reply to comment


How to write an RFP response on Saturday, December 07, 2013 5:30 AM
A fine quality blog! I like the way blogger presented information regarding the concerned subject. Thanks for posting such a nice blog.
Reply to comment


Creative Agency Vancouver on Monday, December 09, 2013 11:02 AM
Oh!! actually, since longtime I am looking for this kind of dispatched remarks and eventually I glimpsed you are dispatched lettersing soon this dispatched remarks. That's help me a pieces.
Reply to comment


Forex peace army on Tuesday, December 10, 2013 3:05 AM
This is great for any business to grow with foreign trading.we can get help from the advices on this to understand things more clear.It can give benefits to grow business in different countries.
Reply to comment


gallipoli Anzac on Friday, December 20, 2013 1:52 AM
I'm thankful for finding your blog post about Why Foreign Aid Fails to Promote Economic Growth in Africa. I've bookmarked this site and will return again soon.
Reply to comment


Dmitri Chavkerov on Saturday, December 21, 2013 2:50 AM
Any Country has a big issue of unemployment. It shows weak image of country where more percentage is below poverty line. It all counts in overall development of any nation.
Reply to comment


Research on South Africa on Monday, December 23, 2013 7:13 AM
That is a nice piece of information. Proper aid allocation is very important.
Reply to comment


Bad Credit Personal Loans on Tuesday, December 31, 2013 2:46 AM
Thanks for the excellent create up. It if in all honesty was once enjoyment records it. Look innovative to more provide flexible from you! Through the means, how could we communicate?
Reply to comment


Forex Peace Army on Saturday, January 04, 2014 2:17 AM
Foreign trading depends on the country's economy and currency value.I am very satisfied to be here because this is a very excellent website that provides plenty of details about economic growth.It's very interesting and knowledgeable blog.
Reply to comment


Bad Credit Personal Loans Guaranteed Approval on Wednesday, January 15, 2014 5:52 AM
Good post. I was verifying consistently this weblog and I am impressed! Very useful info specifically the last part I care for such information lots. I was seem for this assured information for a moderately a while. I will keep the notice of your website. Thanks
Reply to comment


Miley Cyrus on Wednesday, January 29, 2014 1:22 AM
I do believe all the concepts you have presented in your post. They’re very convincing and can definitely work. Nonetheless, the posts are very brief for starters. Could you please extend them a bit from next time? Thanks for the post.
Reply to comment


Mariya on Thursday, January 30, 2014 7:42 AM
I just want to tell you that I’m beginner to blogging and site-building and really liked this web site. Likely I want to bookmark your website. You really come with perfect articles. Thanks a lot for revealing your blog.
Reply to comment


promote health business on Saturday, February 15, 2014 6:37 AM
Great blog post, however only a few of the points were actually treated really good,I definitely enjoyed what you had to say. Keep heading because you undoubtedly bring a new voice to this subject.
Reply to comment


hollister drivers wanted on Monday, March 03, 2014 11:55 AM
Very well. Its very interesting and sensible information you have to share about Foreign Aid Fails to Promote Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa?. Thanks!!!!
Reply to comment


online wigs on Saturday, March 15, 2014 11:42 AM
I am really happy with your stuff provide. I like to bookmark it and i hope in future you w ill keep update us
Reply to comment


Lipozene on Friday, April 04, 2014 2:23 AM
I harmonize with your conclusions and will thirstily look forward to your approaching updates
Reply to comment


Ultra Premium Adventure on Sunday, April 06, 2014 10:50 PM
I enjoy reading article. Hope i can find more articles like this one. Thanks for posting.
Reply to comment


Lipozene scam on Tuesday, April 08, 2014 4:03 AM
Always has really good posts and topics please keep it up! loads of blogs are going under lately from lack of new posts etc
Reply to comment


Hydroxcut Reviews on Thursday, April 10, 2014 10:24 PM
It’s amazing how interesting it is for me to visit you very often.
Reply to comment


Bad Credit Loansq on Monday, April 14, 2014 1:12 AM
Hey dear, genuinely you're awesome. You do not know how excellent your web site is? Due to only this certain content, I discovered you in 1st page of Google although searching for content for my project and now I have bookmarked it for future reference and would maintain visit it until my project won’t be completed fully.
Reply to comment


SlimQuick on Monday, April 14, 2014 11:36 AM
I’m very fired up to show it to anyone. It makes me so satisfied your vast understanding and wisdom have a new channel for trying into the world.
Reply to comment


Glendale Blinds on Saturday, April 19, 2014 8:44 AM
Occasions can certainly and should end up being an integral part of your current campaign's fundraising strategy. Whilst simply no advertising campaign must really rely entirely in political fundraising foods to increase nearly all his or her finances.
Reply to comment


bad credit loans on Tuesday, April 22, 2014 11:55 PM
"Hello there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and found that it’s truly informative. I’m going to watch out for Brussels. I will be grateful if you continue this in future. A lot of people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!"
Reply to comment


livewetten on Thursday, April 24, 2014 3:30 PM
Sport Handicap
Reply to comment


brandon77 on Thursday, April 24, 2014 11:53 PM
100% assured. Any recommendations or advice is greatly appreciated. I am aware this if off topic but I’m evaluating starting my own personal weblog and was wondering what all needs to get create? I’m assuming working with a blog like yours would cost a lot of money? I’m a lot of web savvy so I’m not 100
Reply to comment


livewetten on Sunday, April 27, 2014 5:54 AM
wie man auf Sport zu wetten
Reply to comment


Bad Credit Personal Loans on Monday, April 28, 2014 2:55 AM
I’m satisfied, I must say. Actually not often do I experience a weblog that is both educative and interesting, and let me let you know, you have hit the fingernail on the go. Your concept is outstanding; the problem is something that not enough individuals are discussing wisely about. I’m very relaxed that I came throughout this in my search for one factor regarding this.
Reply to comment


live wetten on Wednesday, May 07, 2014 3:37 PM
Collage Football Quote
Reply to comment


Debt Consolidation Loans on Friday, May 09, 2014 1:52 AM
100% assured. Any recommendations or advice is greatly appreciated. I am aware this if off topic but I’m evaluating starting my own personal weblog and was wondering what all needs to get create? I’m assuming working with a blog like yours would cost a lot of money? I’m a lot of web savvy so I’m not 100
Reply to comment


No credit check personal loans on Saturday, May 10, 2014 12:37 AM
I’m still studying from you, but I’m trying to achieve my objectives. I certainly appreciate studying everything that is published on your website. Keep the content coming? I liked it!
Reply to comment


sewa mobil on Monday, May 12, 2014 1:32 AM
Nice article, thanks for the information. It's very complete information. I will bookmark for next reference.
Reply to comment


Loans For The Unemployed on Monday, May 12, 2014 2:44 AM
100% assured. Any recommendations or advice is greatly appreciated. I am aware this if off topic but I’m evaluating starting my own personal weblog and was wondering what all needs to get create? I’m assuming working with a blog like yours would cost a lot of money? I’m a lot of web savvy so I’m not 100
Reply to comment


essay writer service on Friday, May 16, 2014 7:54 AM
This is a very handy for me as well.I must follow the dis discussion which is very essential for me as well.I am sure the content will be very informative. Keep it up.
Reply to comment


Bad Credit Unsecured Loans on Monday, May 19, 2014 1:22 AM
While i originally commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and today every time a remark is added I get 4 emails using the same comment. Perhaps there is any method you should remove me from that check? Thankfulness!
Reply to comment


Bad credit Loans on Monday, May 19, 2014 6:26 AM
Thanks for the excellent create up. It if in all honesty was once enjoyment records it. Look innovative to more provide flexible from you! Through the means, how could we communicate?
Reply to comment


Pedicab NYC on Wednesday, May 21, 2014 3:56 AM
I was very encouraged to find this site regarding Why Foreign Aid Fails to Promote Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa?. I wanted to thank you for this special read. I definitely savored every little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post.
Reply to comment


Mcx Tips and Metal Updates on Monday, May 26, 2014 3:18 AM
Reason that you have shared with us that why the foreign aid fails to promote economic growth is seem very true you have found out the real facts behind this. Good to know about this here.
Reply to comment


Equity Market Tips on Wednesday, May 28, 2014 12:24 AM
This is a really good read for me, Must admit that you are one of the best article i ever saw.Thanks for posting this informative article.
Reply to comment


improvement of stp on Wednesday, May 28, 2014 2:18 AM
I just want to say I 'm new to weblog and really loved this website. It is almost certain that I have a tendency to mark your blog. Despite everything comes with impressive well written articles.
Reply to comment


Diet Pills on Monday, June 02, 2014 7:57 AM
I harmonize with your conclusions and will thirstily look forward to your approaching updates
Reply to comment


Lipozene on Monday, June 02, 2014 7:59 AM
I absolutely enjoyed every single small little bit of it. I’ve you bookmarked your internet site to look at out the new stuff you post.
Reply to comment


vistshop.com on Thursday, June 05, 2014 10:29 PM
Most of what you point out happens to be astonishingly accurate and it makes me ponder why I had not looked at this in this light before. This article truly did switch the light on for me as far as this subject goes. Nevertheless at this time there is one issue I am not necessarily too cozy with and whilst I make an effort to reconcile that with the main theme of the issue, allow me observe just what the rest of your subscribers have to point out.Well done.
Reply to comment


vistshop.com on Thursday, June 05, 2014 11:50 PM
I like what you guys are up too. Such intelligent work and reporting! Keep up the superb works guys I incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it'll improve the value of my web site :)
Reply to comment


best diet pills that work on Saturday, June 14, 2014 11:10 AM
Online reading is not my thing. But after reading your blog I am really pleased. I don’t know about other blogs but this I will definitely keep coming back to.
Reply to comment


Lipozene on Sunday, July 06, 2014 7:07 PM
I harmonize with your conclusions and will thirstily look forward to your approaching updates
Reply to comment


Slim Quick Review on Tuesday, July 15, 2014 3:00 AM
I’m very fired up to show it to anyone. It makes me so satisfied your vast understanding and wisdom have a new channel for trying into the world.
Reply to comment


Event organijer in jaipur on Monday, July 21, 2014 6:53 AM
This is very much great and hope fully nice blog. 
Reply to comment


Lipozene on Sunday, August 10, 2014 6:19 AM
Instantly amazed with all the useful information that is on it. Great post, just what i was looking for and i am looking forward to reading your other posts soon!
Reply to comment


Nifty Future Tips on Tuesday, August 12, 2014 3:56 AM
Hey that is a really good post about the real estate market, would love to share it with friends.
Reply to comment


Weight Loss on Tuesday, August 12, 2014 10:39 PM
I’m very fired up to show it to anyone. It makes me so satisfied your vast understanding and wisdom have a new channel for trying into the world.
Reply to comment


Event Organizer In Jaipur on Monday, August 18, 2014 5:46 AM
Thanks for posting this type of post.
Reply to comment


Best Wedding Photographer in Jaipur, on Monday, August 18, 2014 5:46 AM
Great post, what you said is really helpful to me. I agree with you anymore. 
Reply to comment


Wholesale Lingerie on Monday, September 01, 2014 2:23 AM
Wholesale Sexy Lingerie,High Quality!Low Price! Wholesale Leggings,Plus Size Corsets,Wholesale Halloween Costumes From China Suppliers LingeriePark.Wholesale Only,No Retail!
Reply to comment


Phentermine on Wednesday, September 17, 2014 10:06 AM
Great site. I add this Post to my bookmarks.
Reply to comment


Lipozene Scam on Friday, September 19, 2014 9:54 AM
Great post, just what i was looking for and i am looking forward to reading your other posts soon!
Reply to comment


PIC-Claim Singapore 2014 on Friday, September 26, 2014 3:47 PM
This article is well written and very informative. I really like this site because it offers loads of information to its followers.
Reply to comment


Litigation Funding on Sunday, October 26, 2014 11:38 AM
Financial problems are very common these days and personal finance planning is essential if you want to succeed in life.
Reply to comment


third party litigation financing on Sunday, October 26, 2014 11:47 AM
A financial plan is not a plan or strategy on how to SPEND our earnings received from working hard for a boss. It needs to assist in helping YOU reach financial independence.
Reply to comment


litigation finance on Monday, October 27, 2014 4:00 AM
Sometimes one may find himself or herself in a big lawsuit. Regardless of whether the person is a plaintiff or a defendant, it is necessary to be well prepared in order to get the best legal presentation.
Reply to comment


pre settlement lawsuit funding on Tuesday, October 28, 2014 12:32 PM
Personal injury litigation is categorized into two classes, negligence cases and intentional torts. Apart from these, the workplace injuries are also taken into consideration.
Reply to comment


patent litigation on Tuesday, October 28, 2014 12:39 PM
Starting by analyzing competitors' logos and going through everything from font to the use of gavel or justice scales images, you will learn everything you need to have the best logo for your law firm.
Reply to comment


lawsuit cash on Thursday, October 30, 2014 8:01 AM
Buying and financing a new home is a long and involved process and having a few first home financing tips could help make the process go a bit smoother. These could also ease a lot of stress.
Reply to comment


lawsuit loans texas on Wednesday, December 03, 2014 2:32 AM
This is an overview of lawsuit loans for the novice. Litigation finance can be confusing for people to understand as it is a unique form of finance. Lawsuit cash advances should be understood by plaintiffs prior to applying for funding. This article gives plaintiffs a background on lawsuit funding and some of the frequently asked questions about lawsuit loans.
Reply to comment


http://www.essaywriting-service.org on Wednesday, January 28, 2015 6:10 AM
Bonjour et merci pour votre contribution,, puis-je vous soumettre une question : me permettez-vous de faire un lien par mail vers cet article ? Merci pour tout***$$$$
Reply to comment


Daniel Jones on Friday, January 30, 2015 1:41 PM
Jail bonds may be a cash bond, surety bond or property bond. If a cash bond is set, the defendant or a third party must pay the jail bail in the full amount. If the bond is a surety bond, the third party contacts a bondsman.
Reply to comment


Commodity Tips Provider on Friday, October 09, 2015 3:42 AM
I want to know if it's too late to be a tester? How long do it take to see results?
Reply to comment


emergency first aid at work on Monday, November 16, 2015 4:08 AM
Oups... the weblog gone by Les Explorers listing; )So a lot of people depart any comment in your weblog, Because of this you can understand that your blog is extremely Superb, Kind regards to your performance, I'm hoping anyone still post this kind of beneficial posts.
Reply to comment


70-410 on Monday, December 28, 2015 7:20 AM
Hey Admin! My Political Vision i am not interested in political vision. I am sure really interesting topic for those person who are interested in political vision. By the way i am study about the different certified paper the paper provide an information about the windows installation and configure the server. Thanks for sharing nice post.
Reply to comment


janni on Thursday, December 31, 2015 7:22 AM
Hi admin This is really interesting blog for those who really want to spend his life in political way. Very informative blog you have. Thanks for it.
Reply to comment


Zentiz on Sunday, January 10, 2016 4:00 AM
Was confirming reliably this weblog and I am inspired! Exceptionally valuable data particularly the last part I watch over such data parcels. I was appear for this guaranteed data for a tolerably a while. I will keep the notification of your site. Thanks!
Reply to comment


keramiek tafelblad on Sunday, January 10, 2016 6:04 AM
Thanks for sharing your great ideas with us through this site. keramiek tafelblad
Reply to comment


http://topassociate.co.uk/ on Thursday, February 18, 2016 2:38 AM
These bailouts allow failed states to continue the same practices that cause them to fail in the first place. And the constant repetition of the same mistakes causes us to ponder to what extent the West understands the dynamic complexities of the African reality.
Reply to comment


Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Treatments on Wednesday, March 02, 2016 2:41 AM
We are Provide Best Services in Amsterdam. If you want know about Welkom bij zwangerschapsyoga Amsterdam ! Door wekelijks aan yoga en meditatie te doen voer je de stress af. Daarnaast heeft je kindje een ontspannen
Reply to comment


rinta teippi on Tuesday, March 22, 2016 9:53 PM
This is very nice one and gives indepth information. thanks for this nice article.
Reply to comment


selbstklebende bh on Thursday, April 21, 2016 11:51 PM
What a great info, thank you for sharing. this will help me so much in my learning
Reply to comment


fake watches on Friday, April 29, 2016 12:01 AM
Why it has not been able to move Sub-Saharan Africa from subsistence and survival to a higher living standard.
Reply to comment


Financial Advice on Monday, June 13, 2016 1:37 AM
Your blog post is just complete quality and informative related to traders hits. Many new facts and information which I have not heard about before. Keep sharing more blog posts.
Reply to comment


Anne buy windows 10 professional key on Thursday, July 14, 2016 4:16 AM
buy windows 10 key , win 10 home premium product key , windows 10 key online store reviews , how to upgrade windows 10 ultimate genuine version for free , buy windows 10 ultimate 64 bit product key ,
Reply to comment


king size quilts on Sunday, September 11, 2016 9:50 PM
It provides a quilt, decorative and shams cushions which includes a charming floral style in splendid green and yellow metal shades. This desirable increased quilt place consists of 100 percent cotton and machine machine washable.
Reply to comment


signs of pregnancy before missed period on Tuesday, December 13, 2016 1:18 PM
Hello admin, I have read your article and i found that you have discussed a really valid topic and you deserve it to get appreciation from all of us. thanks
Reply to comment


PebBuild on Thursday, December 29, 2016 2:55 AM
Thanks for posting such type of blog, will be help us to improve business foreign trade.
Reply to comment


Top IT company in India on Saturday, April 01, 2017 3:31 AM
Thanks for this informative post.
Reply to comment


stp on Tuesday, April 11, 2017 10:05 PM
sewage treatment plant (stp) will remove contaminations from water and make it reusable... for more information please visit STP<?a>
Reply to comment


international urdu news paper on Tuesday, May 16, 2017 1:55 PM
MOrning, I'm so foody and that's why i'm overweight.But i agree health is wealth .You can in like way check my blog of international Urdu news paper for immense bits of the most recent articles, standard routine restored news and various fascinating happenings and entertainments.
Reply to comment


gostream on Tuesday, August 22, 2017 11:41 AM
Thank you so much for referring to an outstanding weblog.Very motivating and useful too.Hope you begin working on discuss about more of your concepts.I will definitely really like to check out.
Reply to comment


Brinda Jack on Saturday, October 07, 2017 5:48 AM
It is very ijnteresting to read :)
Reply to comment


www on Friday, October 20, 2017 9:41 AM
Great site!
Reply to comment


www on Friday, October 20, 2017 9:42 AM
Great content!
Reply to comment


www on Friday, October 20, 2017 9:44 AM
Thanks for the information. You provided food for thought.
Reply to comment


www on Friday, October 20, 2017 9:45 AM
Great content!
Reply to comment


www on Friday, October 20, 2017 9:46 AM
Thank you for allowing your inspirational story to come to light.
Reply to comment


pills on Sunday, November 05, 2017 3:18 AM
Great site!
Reply to comment


Independent Africa on Sunday, November 12, 2017 6:36 AM
It is a time to reduce the dependency on Foreign aid in Africa. Despite that African countries should use their resources to create more jobs and industries. But, the ongoing and new conflicts make more and more people dependent on Foreign aid in Africa. So, in the fact, Trump's aid cut must have a negative impact on it.
Reply to comment


Ayana Movies on Saturday, November 18, 2017 3:24 PM
Do you want to make great short movies. Follow theses tips: 1. Get your head out of the clouds 2. Know the responsibilities of crowd funding and know it’s likely a one time deal 3. Audition, audition, audition - you don’t need people to just say the lines — you need actors. 4. Create a compelling cinematic experience 5. Avoid cliches and give us an engaging story 6. Keep the running time short 7. Feed your cast and crew well 8. Don’t be a dictator, be a collaborator 9. You must beg, borrow, and use your relationships
Reply to comment

Add a Comment

Your Name:
Email Address: (Required)
Website:
Comment:
Make your text bigger, bold, italic and more with HTML tags. We'll show you how.
Post Comment
Website Builder provided by  Vistaprint